Dutch, you have harped regarding the constitution being incomplete. In reality, it is complete. The purpose of the document was the establishment of a system to pass and execute legislation. It does just that.
The problem lies both much deeper and more overt.
Madison as well others wrote of the danger of factions. This is the way of human beings. Information meshes and also clashes with belief systems. Information asymmetry, accidental and intentional, impacts decision-making processes resulting in an extreme range of psychological responses. The laws you have mentioned are not a function of the constitution but of those who were placed in a position to make laws by that document. Those people were put there by “We The People”. The founders feared democracy. They deliberately constructed a system that would allegedly allow for an assumed high level of liberty while also increasing the efficiency that was lacking in the Articles of Confederation. The constitution attempted to create a federal state while also allowing so-called states rights which was a term of art created to mollify those who believed, imo, that there should be 13 states due to, imo, the stupidity of separate colonies. The founders failed. Not because the constitution failed but because man failed. The end results were perhaps predictable but the founders hoped otherwise.
Many of the problems could be attributed to arrogance under the guise of exceptionalism as well as the willingness to permit slavery while hiding that the true nature of the revolution was economic since the crown was damaging wealth. Democratic institutions were necessary to provide cover for the economic rationale. Jefferson’s rhetoric was agitprop to help convince a populace that was less concerned with the economics of wealth. A populist revolution was necessary. Slavery was permitted because a united front of wealth was necessary. The founders also did not anticipate technological development in communications, transportation and weaponry.
So, to return to the constitution, the document prohibits two laws iirc: bills of attainder and ex post facto laws. Everything else as the document is written is permissible. The first 10 amendments were attempts to narrow focus while not limiting freedom which again was undefined. These amendments, again, product of fallible man are and always have been subject to the same vagaries of man’s conflicted and conflicting belief structures as well as imperfect information processing. The laws created by the mechanism created by the document run afoul of belief structures of politicians including those on the SCOTUS which wields power it does not have.
What you have in a nutshell is imperfection. This imperfection is both a hindrance and a potential help.
The problem lies with man.