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Plato's ideal government was composed of three castes, productive, protective and governing. He suggested that these same parts make up the human 'soul' and should therefore work well if put into practice on a larger scale.
The productive caste is made up of workers. Farmers, plumbers masons, etc. This group made up the 'appetite' of the soul. The desire to be productive.
The protective part of the people is made up of the military. Soldiers, generals etc. The productive caste made up the 'spirit' of the soul, or the desire to survive.
And the governing caste was made up of politicians, kings, and other rulers. This caste made up the 'reason' part of the soul.
As most know, the Athenians rejected Plato's model as they believed the ruling caste should be a select few people who had power while Plato wanted thinking people, like philosophers to rule.
I really like the idea of Plato's governing caste. If you look at the people who are in office, a vast majority of people are business men or lawyers. Where are the teachers? The scientists? Philiosophers? Doctors?