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Government deficit=non government surplus.
Every major recession/depression has preceded periods of government surpluses. What was different during the Bush II years was the large current account deficit, which the government deficit proved too small to offset, due to the additional revenues from all the fraudulent lending which hyperinflated the housing bubble.
The Federal Reserve does not lend money to banks to lend to us. Banks are capital and regulatory constrained. Reserve balances are like clearing balances used as the final form of payment in the banking system for transactions involving deposits created by loans. Reserves are lent to private banks at cost near 0%.
The district banks are privately owned by member banks. They are like co-op regional banks of banks. All they do is clear the checks, fund research, provide info, etc. They are also supposed to make criminal referals on member bank's illegal activities, so there's an obvious conflict of interest.
The Federal Reserve Board is, however, a government agency, albeit independent.
I've been writing about all this at the D-Hub for nearly 3 years.